Muslim historians probably attached as much importance to experimentation as did Muslim scientists who did not as did medieval European scientists assign increasing significance thereto; they occasionally stressed the importance of eyewitnesses. See Rosenthal , F. See also I, pp.
Passar bra ihop
On the nature and the exploitative character of the Muslim revenue system at the time when the simpler Umayyads gave way to the luxurious Abbasids, see Levy, op. On famine and pestilence, see II, pp. It is after the second generation that decay sets in II, pp. This finding may be compared with Giddings' , F. The form is the shape that preserves the existence of matter through the particular kind of phenomenon it represents. One cannot imagine a dynasty without civilization, while a civilization without dynasty and royal authority is impossible, because human beings must by nature co-operate, and that calls for a restraining influence.
Political leadership, based either on religious or royal authority, is obligatory as such a restraining influence. He does not indicate when recovery set in or whether, as Karl F.
Methodological Dimension of Islamic Economics
Elsewhere II, pp. Presumably North Africa had not recovered from destruction brought by nomadic invasions after the mid-eleventh century. Presumably specialization made for proficiency, co-operation made possible undertakings beyond the power of an individual, and skill and knowledge accumulated where men were congregating and cooperating. Craft specialization too gave rise to cumulating skill and sometimes also to skill- or knowledge-favoring spill-over effects.
On the supply side it makes possible greater volume of output and, because of the effects of co-operation, greater output per worker; and on the demand side, it gives rise to a larger aggregate demand, in the absence of which there would be less or none at all of some goods and services produced. See II, pp.
See Lopez, in Postan and Rich, op. Whether this is the work cited above in note 49, I am not sure; it reflects Bryson's influence. II, p. Because of the risks involved in commerce and the need of the merchant to be aggressive, disputatious, quarrel some, cunning, etc. Even today connection with persons of rank is deemed highly useful in parts of the Islamic world as well as in other parts , particularly when such a person can be put under obligation.
The value realized from all such labor becomes part of his profit. For tasks that usually require giving some compensation to the persons who perform them , he always employs people without giving anything in return. He realizes a very high value from their labor. It is the difference between the value he realizes from the free labor products and the prices he must pay for things he needs.
He thus makes a very great profit. A person of rank receives much free labor which makes him rich in a very short time. With the passing of days, his fortune and wealth increase. For this reason merchants with rank were in a very favorable situation II, pp.
He looked upon the advantages attaching to rank as an undesirable by-product of a prerequisite i. Thus, too, many people who are proud and supercilious have no use for rank. He suggests that some religious officials and teachers are poor in part because they answer to this description II, pp. The labor available is more than is needed. Consequently, it is spent to provide the conditions and customs of luxury and to satisfy the needs of the inhabitants of other cities.
Inasmuch as the activities associated with a town usually embraced considerable agricultural activity, this statement may be interpreted to imply a capacity on the part of agriculturalists to produce a surplus of foodstuffs for urban consumption I, p. While taxes could be increased, there was a limit to such increase II, pp. It neither increases nor decreases. Accordingly, if dynastic luxury is further increased, military expenditure must be decreased I, p. Rosenthal's introduction to his translation, I, pp. Indeed, a Turkish student in Paris in the late 's recorded as strange the fact that each Frenchman hoped to go further than his ancestors.
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References Hide All. Recommend this journal. Comparative Studies in Society and History. Who would you like to send this to? Optional message. Unlike their counterparts in the major colonial powers of England and France, German Orientalists had barely come into contact with Muslims up to this time. Their work had remained based entirely on classical texts, guided by questions relating to philology and theology, alongside which only history and law, if that, had been able to hold their own.
An interest in the modern age had not developed until the time of the German Empire, gaining momentum when Germany became active in the region as an ally of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, but losing it after both countries were defeated. Up until the end of the Second World War, the subject was dominated by philology, especially in the National Socialist era. Next came very different new approaches in East Germany, where Oriental Studies were included in Asian and African Studies under the influence of Marxist-Leninist doctrine and primarily concentrated on the present; its main centers were Leipzig, Jena, Halle and Berlin.